Quel est l’impact économique et social de l’Euro 2016 ?

L’Euro 2016 aura lieu du 10 juin au 10 juillet, avec, pour la première fois, 24 équipes qui se disputeront le titre et qui tenteront de succéder à l’Espagne.

Un évènement majeur sur le plan sportif bien sur, mais aussi au niveau économique et social. Après 1960 et 1984, c’est la troisième fois que la France organise la compétition. A cette occasion, le Centre de Droit et d’Économie du Sport a réalisé une étude qui met en évidence l’impact économique et social de l’Euro 2016, entre économie et héritage social, sportif et territorial.

etude euro 1

En guise d’introduction à son étude, le Centre de Droit et d’Économie du Sport donne une définition en chiffres de ce qu’est le championnat d’Europe des Nations : 31 jours de compétition, 150 millions de téléspectateurs par match, 2.5 millions de spectateurs attendus dans les stades, 250 000 nuitées (sportifs, officiels, représentants UEFA, personnels), et surtout près d’1.3 milliards d’euros en terme d’impact économique potentiel. Sur ces 1.3 milliards, près de 600 millions relèvent des dépenses spectateurs dans les stades, 200 relèvent des dépenses dans les fan zones et le reste, soit près de 480 millions d’euros, provient des dépenses d’organisation (UEFA Euro 2016, fonds UEFA pour les villes hôtes, sponsors…)

10 stades accueilleront les 51 rencontres : Bordeaux, Lens, Lille, Lyon, Marseille, Nice, Paris, Saint-Denis, Saint-Étienne et Toulouse. L’occasion pour la France de rattraper son retard en terme de modernisation de son parc de stades : entre rénovation comme le Stade Vélodrome de Marseille, et construction de nouveaux stades comme le Parc OL de Lyon ou l’Allianz Riviera de Nice. L’idée était surtout, au-delà d’un simple terrain, de créer un espace d’envergure multifonctions et connecté, qui soit un lieu de vie comprenant par exemple des zones de réception pour les entreprises. 1.7 milliards d’investissements furent dédiées à ce renouvellement de l’offre de stades, 62 % d’investissement privés et 38 % d’investissements publics. Ainsi, 20 000 emplois ont été crées pour la rénovation et la construction des stades. Conséquence de ce mouvement d’ampleur, les clubs professionnels résidents seront dotés d’outils leur permettant de diversifier leurs recettes ; de même, les collectivités pourront être dotées d’un équipement sportif de rayonnement international pouvant être placé au coeur de stratégies de marketing territorial.

etude euro 2

Des stratégies qui devront bien sur englober l’amélioration de l’offre de transports avec une redynamisation urbaine. Là aussi, l’Euro 2016 apparaît comme un levier de développement. Une opportunité majeure, également, pour le secteur touristique avec la création d’emplois, bien que temporaires, dans les hôtels et les restaurants. Plus globalement, en terme de création d’emplois, le Centre de Droit et d’Économie du Sport estime à 94 000 le chiffre des personnes employées dans le cadre de l’organisation de ce 15ème Championnat d’Europe des Nations.

D’ailleurs, les PME ont été mobilisées pour l’évènement : « De la mascotte de l’Euro aux gobelets réutilisables distribués dans les stades, en passant par le marché de l’intérim, les PME françaises devraient profiter elles aussi des retombées économiques de la compétition » rapporte l’Institut Montaigne : sur les 562 entreprises mobilisées, 58 % sont françaises.

L’étude insiste sur une condition sine qua non pour réussir l’organisation d’un tel évènement : les synergies et transversalités. Il faut percevoir chaque partie de ce projet comme autant d’opportunités de raisonner transversalement et de rechercher la complémentarité entre des milieux autrefois cloisonnés : sport, économie, tourisme, transports…

Enfin, en complément de l’aspect économique, l’étude rappelle que l’Euro 2016 revêt un enjeu social, territorial et d’image : sur le plan du lien social-sportif, la France pourra « viser la pérennisation de la situation des clubs locaux à travers une croissance du nombre de licenciés, en dynamisant et renforçant l’engagement bénévole dans le football ». Cela sera encore plus vrai en cas de bon parcours de l’Equipe de France. Un Euro qui peut redonner confiance au pays et une mise en lumière de la continuité avec les évènement suivants à venir, comme le Mondial de Hand 2017, la Ryder Cup et la candidature aux JO 2024. Quand l’enjeu de communication rejoint l’enjeu économique, l’Euro doit permettre de valoriser le territoire français et l’image du pays, avec un afflux important de visiteurs étrangers et donc une médiatisation renforcée de la France à l’échelle européenne.

L’intégralité de l’étude du Centre de Droit et de l’Economie du Sport

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